|Abstract:In the natural environment, microorganisms exist together in self-produced polymeric matrix biofilms. Often, several species, which can belong to both bacterial and fungal kingdoms, coexist and interact in ways which are not completely understood. Biofilm infections have become prevalent largely in medical settings due to the increasing use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters or prosthetics. These infections are resistant to common antimicrobial therapies because of the inherent nature of their structure. In terms of infectious biofilms, it is important to understand the microbe-microbe interactions and how the host immune system reacts in order to discover therapeutic targets. Currently, single infection immune response studies are thriving with the use of invertebrate models. This review highlights the advances in single microbial-host immune response as well as the promising aspects for polymicrobial biofilm study in five invertebrate models; Lemna minor (duck weed), Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), Dictyostelium discoideum (slime mold), Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly), and Caenorhabditis elegans (round worm). ? 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.