|Abstract:The use of pyrethroids has increased throughout the world over the past few decades, as organophosphate, carbamate and organochlorine insecticides are being phased out. Permethrin is widely used in the USA for crops treatment, at concentrations around 750 ? 10(3) ?g/L. In our study 3.6 ?g/L permethrin decreases the fission-rate and the fruiting bodies formation of slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. Whereas 3.6 ? 10(4) ?g/L kills the 100% of amoebae, showing a 24 h-LC50 = 96.6 ?g/L. This concentration induces an increase in the pseudocholinesterase activity as well as in both butyrylcholinesterase and heat-shock-protein 70 presence. Our results highlight the high sensitivity of Dictyostelium to permethrin, at concentration of about 10(5) lesser than what used for agricultural pest control. If we match our results on 6 days of exposure, with the permethrin relatively slow permanence (30 days) in the aerobic soil, as well as the higher effect of permethrin than organophosphate, carbamate and organochlorine pesticides on D. discoideum, the damage on the dictyostelids community, by use of permethrin, is clear. Our data suggest that, if the sustainable agriculture implementation is a topic of the modern "industrial" farming, the permethrin cannot represent a reliable alternative to organochlorine, organophosphate or carbamate pesticides, in implementing Integrated Pest Management programmes.