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McDew-White, Marina, Li, Xue, Nkhoma, SC Standwell C, Nair, Shalini, Cheeseman, Ian, Anderson, TJC Tim J C, (2019) ' Mode and tempo of microsatellite length change in a malaria parasite mutation accumulation experiment. ' Genome Biol Evol
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Abstract:Malaria parasites have small extremely AT-rich genomes: microsatellite repeats (1-9bp) comprise 11% of the genome and genetic variation in natural populations is dominated by repeat changes in microsatellites rather than point mutations. This experiment was designed to quantify microsatellite mutation patterns in Plasmodium falciparum. We established 31 parasite cultures derived from a single parasite cell, and maintained these for 114-267 days with frequent reductions to a single cell, so parasites accumulated mutations during ~13,207 cell divisions. We Illumina sequenced the genomes of both progenitor and end-point mutation accumulation (MA) parasite lines in duplicate to validate stringent calling parameters. Microsatellite calls were 99.89% (GATK), 99.99% (freeBayes) and 99.96% (HipSTR) concordant in duplicate sequence runs from independent sequence libraries, while introduction of microsatellite mutations into the reference genome revealed a low false negative calling rate (0.68%). We observed 98 microsatellite mutations. We highlight several conclusions: microsatellite mutation rates (3.12 ? 10-7 - 2.16 ? 10-8/cell division) are associated with both repeat number and repeat motif like other organisms studied. However, 41% of changes resulted from loss or gain of more than one repeat: this was particularly true for long repeat arrays. Unlike other eukaryotes, we found no insertions or deletions that were not associated with repeats or homology regions. Overall, microsatellite mutation rates are amongst the lowest recorded and comparable to those in another AT-rich protozoan (Dictyostelium). However, a single infection (>1011 parasites) will still contain over 2.16???103 - 3.12???104 independent mutations at any single microsatellite locus.
Status: aheadofprint Type: Journal article Source: PUBMED PubMed ID: 31273388