|Abstract:The regeneration of lost body parts is a fascinating phenomenon exhibited by some multicellular organisms. In social amoebae, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, the pseudoplasmodium is a temporary migratory multicellular structure with high regeneration ability. It consists of future stalk cells (prestalk cells) at the anterior end and future spore cells (prespore cells) at the posterior end, and if amputated, the remaining cells can rapidly regenerate the lost portion within several hours. Details of this regeneration event have been extensively documented; however, little is known about the behavior of individual cells involved in this process. In this study, we performed live cell imaging of cell behavior during regeneration of the excised anterior prestalk region. We used cells that specifically express GFP in the prestalk cell lineage to examine how the prestalk region is regenerated after this region is excised. The current model of prestalk regeneration suggests that the progenitors of prestalk cells, known as anterior-like cells (ALCs), which are sparsely distributed in the prespore region, are redistributed to form the new prestalk region. However, we found that the regenerated prestalk region was formed mainly by the transdifferentiation of prespore cells surrounding the excised anterior end, with little clustering of pre-existing ALCs. Furthermore, the movement of randomly distributed labeled cells during regeneration revealed that although the posterior end was deformed and rounded in shape, the relative position of cells along the anterior-posterior axis remained largely unchanged. These results suggest that the original anterior-posterior axis is maintained in posterior bodies and that prespore cells at the anterior side transdifferentiate and regenerate the prestalk region.